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Theoretical Foundations

The six “R” Processes of Mourning in Relation to the Three Phases of Grief and Mourning

Avoidance phase

  1. Recognize the loss
    • Acknowledge the death
    • Understand the death

Confrontation phase

  1. React to the separation
    • Experience the pain
    • Feel, identify, accept, and give some form of expression to all the psychological reactions to the loss
    • Identify and mourn secondary losses
  2. Recollect and re-experience the deceased and the relationship
    • Review and remember realistically
    • Revive and re-experience the feelings
  3. Relinquish the old attachments to the deceased and the old assumptive world

Accommodation phase

  1. Readjust to move adaptively into the new world without forgetting the old
    • Revise the assumptive world
    • Develop a new relationship with the deceased
    • Adopt new ways of being in the world
    • Form a new identity
  2. Reinvest

From Rando (1993). Copyright 1993 by Therese A. Rando.